What is Quantum computing? How does it work?

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The processing capability of a quantum computer has increased tremendously with the use of quantum mechanics. Even the most advanced supercomputers of today and tomorrow are likely to lose ground to quantum machines.

Companies are already using quantum computing in their research to generate new pharmaceuticals and more powerful batteries for electric vehicles. Continue reading to know the difference between traditional and quantum computing and also the types of quantum computing:

How do quantum computers tackle problems?

The traditional computers of today are simple, and they use an algorithm to get an answer from a small set of inputs. And the bits used to encode the inputs do not share information with one another. But quantum computers are different, when data is fed into the qubits, the qubits interact with one another, enabling multiple computations to be performed simultaneously. 

This explains why quantum computers are able to operate so much more quickly than traditional computers. Unlike conventional computers, quantum computers offer a variety of possibilities rather than just one definitive answer. Traditional computers are still best for small-scale calculations. By providing potential solutions for extremely complicated problems, quantum computers can speed up computation.

Differences between traditional computing and quantum computing

With certain similarities and many differences, such as the usage of qubits rather than bits, quantum, and traditional computing are in two parallel worlds. Three of the most important differences are examined below:


Quantum computers, unlike personal computers (PC), are not meant for widespread, everyday usage. These supercomputers are complicated, so they can be applied in business, science, and technology.

Programming language

The development and application of particularly specific algorithms are necessary for quantum computing as it lacks its own programming language. But traditional computers have computing languages like Python, Java, SQL, and more.


The architecture of quantum computers is simpler than that of traditional computers, as they lack a CPU and memory. The only component of the apparatus that actually functions is a set of qubits.

Types of quantum computing

Gate-based ion trap processors

 Input data are subjected to a specified unitary operation using a gate-based quantum computer. A quantum circuit is similar to gate operations in traditional computers and is used to illustrate the process. 

Gate-based superconducting processors

At very low temperatures, some materials exhibit superconductivity. Magnetic flux fields are released, and electrical resistance is zero for these materials below a specific threshold temperature. Even if there is no continuous power supply, superconducting processors on an electric current can flow through a loop of superconducting wire.

Photonic processors

Quantum photonic processors are used to manipulate light for calculations. Squeezed-light sources are used in photonic quantum computers to produce qubit equivalents that are modes of continuous operators like position or momentum.

Superconducting quantum computers

The quantum states of the qubits are controlled using the superconducting circuits. Superconducting quantum computers are state-of-the-art quantum computers that are used for a variety of applications like cryptography, modeling, and optimization.

Neutral atoms

Neutral atom quantum computing requires maintaining atoms in an ultrahigh vacuum. Neutral atom quantum computers are the ideal choice for quantum processors because of their lesser sensitivity to electric fields.

Quantum anneals

The energy state of a quantum system’s qubits is reduced by quantum annealing. They make it possible to have a far higher qubit density than is practical in gate-based systems. 

What are the important components of quantum computers?

Like a traditional computer, quantum computers have hardware and software.

Quantum software

Unique quantum algorithms are implemented by quantum software using quantum circuits. A quantum circuit is an algorithm that specifies a number of logical quantum operations to be performed on the underlying qubits. To code quantum algorithms, developers can make use of a variety of software development tools and frameworks.

Quantum hardware

The physical qubits and the supporting structures needed to hold them in place are part of the quantum data plane, which is the central component of the quantum computer.

Analog or wave control signals are created from digital signals by the control and measurement plane. The qubits in the quantum data plane are operated on by these analog signals.

The quantum algorithm or set of procedures is implemented by the control processor plane. A digital signal or classical bits sequence is sent to the control and measurement plane by the host processor, which also communicates with the quantum software. 

Quantum computing’s main use

The most notable uses of quantum computing are the following:


Businesses would further refine their investment portfolios and develop error simulation and detection tools.


The creation of new medications, genetically personalized therapies, and DNA research would benefit from quantum computing. 


Quantum programming leads to improvements in data encryption, like the brand-new Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system. This new method of transmitting sensitive data uses light signals to identify system intrusions.

Apart from these areas, quantum computers can be used in varied areas. To know much on this topic read Best technology blogs and be updated about what is happening in the quantum world.

Final thoughts

Quantum computers are much needed in Physics, engineering, and computer science. A specific issue that needs to be resolved is one of many elements that must be taken into account when developing a quantum computer. Even though the real potential of quantum questions is still undefined, once quantum computers become fully operational, the computation power will attain new heights.  

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